Population (on 1.01.2000): 1 million 362 thousand people
Population density: 33,1 persons / hectare
City area: 41 100 hectares
Religion: Orthodoxy. There are 30 Christian churches (5 of them are cathedrals), a mosque and a synagogue acting in the city.
The city is located on the 56th parallel of northern width and on the 44th degree of east longitude in the Central European part of Russia on the merge of Volga and Oka rivers. The city has favorable geographical conditions for economic and social development.
By the population and industrial potential Nizhny Novgorod is included into the first group of five of the Russian cities, it is the center of Nizhny Novgorod region and the recognized capital of Volga-Vyatka economic region. The industry takes a considerable place in the city structure. More than 210 thousand people (45 % of the general number of working people in the city) are working at 149 large and middle enterprises. The basic branches are mechanical engineering and metal working, black and nonferrous metallurgy, woodworking, easy and food, medical and polygraph industries. In total volume of the goods and services of the city, being produced, the industry takes from 50 to 60 %. The world fame was received by such enterprises of our city, as: JSC “GAS”, JSC «Nizhny Novgorod aerobuilding factory “SOKOL”, JSC «Nizhny Novgorod machine-building factory», JSC “Krasnoye Sormovo» factory, JSC «Krasnyy yakor», JSC “RUMO”, JSC “Normal”, JSC “Hydromash”, JSC “Nizhfarm”, Closed JSC “Mayak” and the others.
Open JSC «Nizhny Novgorod fair» is the modern exposition centre owning the whole infrastructure, necessary for conducting exhibitions, congresses and conferences of the international level. The fair occupies the territory of 55 thousand sq. m. It includes six new exhibition halls and an area for open expositions. The exposition center is the majestic Main exhibition house, the unique building, which has remained from the old fair, includes the Exhibition bank, restaurants, cafes, the casino and the trading passage with a network of elegant salons and brand boutiques.
The favorable geographic location and traditional function of Nizhny Novgorod as a shopping center have provided the creation of rather advanced transport infrastructure. Railway, automobile, water and air ways conveniently connect Nizhny Novgorod with any region of Russia and the CIS, and also with foreign countries. Nizhny Novgorod transport junction, which includes 3 railway stations, river port, shipping company, “Nizhny Novgorod” international airport, 2 runways for the planes of all types, is one of the most saturated and developed in Russia. The rivers and channels connect Nizhny Novgorod with five seas and the further access to the ports of the Scandinavian countries, Western Europe, Africa and Asia. Public transport of Nizhny Novgorod is presented by buses, trams, trolleybuses, underground and taxi. For the purpose of maintenance of the greatest efficiency of the inner passengers’ transportations, there was taken the decision to prolong the “Avtozavodsko-Nizhegorodskaya” line of the underground to the upland part of the city and building the metro bridge through Oka river.
Historical monuments, culture, sports, leisure
A lot of unique monuments of history, architecture and culture have been preserved in the city that gave grounds to the UNESCO to include Nizhny Novgorod in the list of 100 cities of the world representing historical and cultural world value. Nizhny Novgorod citadel is a unique monument of the Old Russian defensive architecture, having preserved from the beginning of the XVIth century. Town-planning ensemble of the Nizhny Novgorod fair (ХIХ century).
There are 7 professional theatres counting 4,6 thousand seats (3 of them are municipal with 1 thousand seats): opera and ballet theater, drama theater, young spectator theater, puppet show, comedy theater, and also a philharmonic society with its symphonic orchestra. The city has 14 museums with branches which have been visited in 1999 by 450 thousand people. The book fund of 94 libraries (3 regional and 91 city’s libraries) includes 7 million 727 thousand copies. According to the city program of development and preservation of cinemas there is a reconstruction of 3 out of 9 municipal cinemas.
There are 8 municipal recreation parks occupying the square of 220 hectares. “Switzerland” park has a unique zoo in Nizhny Novgorod region. The shapito circus and the planetarium always please children with new programs.
The city’s educational system today counts 205 educational institutions, including 7 lycées, 10 grammar schools, 7 children’s homes; 73 establishments of an additional education where 16 700 children study; 369 preschool centers being visited by 44 638 children. Here there are 13 higher educational institutions, several institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, about 100 scientific research institutes and the design bureaus conducting workings out the fields of radio physics, chemistry, radio electronics, etc. The leading high schools are – Nizhny Novgorod state university of N.I.Lobachevsky, state pedagogical university, medical, architectural-building, agricultural and polytechnic universities.